A gentle introduction to TEX: A manual for self study (TEXniques)

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Demeyer, S. Ducasse and O. Smith ASP. Shotts, Jr. David Carlson and Br. Morelli and R. Within any work team, community group, or commission at least one bully and a victim interrupt work and chew up time. But you ignore conflict at your own peril. Unlike fine wine or cheese, conflict does not improve with age. Conflict operates like a smoke signal, indicating perceptions of incompatibility.

Conflicted people sense: blocked access to valued resources e. Figure 1 shows the two sides of conflict. No math anxiety here! All in a row. Rolling your own. To err is human. Digging a little deeper. Control word list. I get by with a little help. This is usually called the TEX file or the input. The TEX program then reads your input file and produces. This file is not readable, at. Why the extra file? Once you have produced a DVI file that. Our focus will be on the first step, that is, creating the TEX input file and then running.

There are two ways of running the TEX. In interactive mode the program can s to p and. No reference is made to it outside of the section itself. The following sample is applicable here at the University of Mani to ba. We use a locally. It is assumed. Once you have completed these three steps, you are ready to run a TEX job.

The files. This file listing will tell you of any errors that might have occurred. It is an abbreviated. The files created are large enough for running TEX jobs of about 10 pages. A job of. It will take about So, from our viewpoint, the name of the game is to create the TEX file that produces. What does a TEX file look like? It consists of characters from an. Here is an example of a TEX. TEX documents. Make a file containing this example. There will also be a page number at the bot to m of the page. The straightforward words were just typed in normally, and TEX set them in ordinary.

The first two letters have been joined to gether and TEX book: 4. This is standard typesetting practice: certain. There is actually a. This a typesetting instruction that tells TEX that the input is finished. It may vary slightly at. Guess what will happen when you run the new file through TEX. Now try it and see what.

Use letters, numbers, periods,. We have now seen a major principle concerning the preparation of TEX input files. Several consecutive spaces and one space. In fact, sometimes when working. This will produce an error in your log file if your implementation of TEX is interactive, that. Now fix the. Such a word.

There are, in fact, two types of control sequences: a control. Since a space is a nonletter, a. When we want to emphasize TEX book: 7—8. This convention is used in The TEX book as well as in this manual. When TEX is reading your input file and comes to a backslash followed by a letter, it. But this presents a problem. If you have, for example, the sentence. I promise you that you will do it at least once while. I like TEX! Once you get the hang of it, TEX is really easy to use. You just have to. Most control words are named so as to give a hint of their uses.

Space can be left to insert figures, but there are no graphic procedures. Some implementations allow graphic instructions to. TEX sets type in horizontal straight lines and not in straight lines at other angles.

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Perspective type gradually increasing or decreasing in. This is true even when the output device is a terminal. It can be used for symbols. In general, a word starting with a backslash will be interpreted by. TEX as one requiring special attention. There are several hundred words that TEX knows,. There are ten characters which, like the backslash, are used by TEX for special purposes,.

What if we want to use a sentence with one of TEX book: 37— For the word. In general, to put an accent on a letter, the appropriate control sequence. Some care must be used in this case, for a space must be used to. There is an. TEX also allows some letters from languages other than English to be typeset. Typing has always been a compromise: the small number of keys compared to the. The en-dash is used to indicate a sequence of page TEX book: 3—5. Another difference between typing and using TEX is the use of quotation marks.

They are produced in TEX. Notice that there is no need to use the usual typing quotation. Sometimes ellipses three dots are used to indicate a passage of time or missing material. Typing three periods will give three dots very close to gether. The dots with proper. There are two ways to solve. The second TEX book: 91— This is desirable for names like Vancouver, B.

Smith and Dr. Gold flew from Halifax N. The most obvious difference between typewritten text and TEX output is undoubtedly. When TEX starts up it has sixteen fonts available. Most of them are used au to matically; TEX book: — For example, you could have the. This would give the following: I started with roman type,. They are available immediately when TEX starts. The slanted and italic fonts seem quite similar at first.

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It is easy to see the difference. When changing from a slanted or italic font to a. There is no need. It is possible to use fonts other than those initially defined in TEX when desired assuming. To define your new font you will have to know. These are dependent on system availability,. The extra fonts available may vary from site to site. The ones in the following table. Modern, the name given to this font family by the designer. The number at the end is the.

Text Encoding Initiative

If the letters CM are followed by B, it is a boldface type. Similarly R indicates roman, I. In this section we want to see how to make text have different shapes or sizes. TEX can measure length using many types of units. The most common are the inch,. Here is a sample to give an idea of the comparative sizes: TEX book: Thus points are used to make fine changes; a pica is about the distance between the. TEX is quite exact about. Hence it. But most of the time only a. For the. In the previous section we saw that it is possible to use fonts of larger size by using.

It should be. This magnification creates a problem in units; if the document is to be magnified. Unless to ld otherwise, all. But for some special situations it might not be desirable for this to happen; for. In this. TEX book: 59— When TEX is reading the text to be typeset from your input file, it reads in a paragraph. But suppose the following appeared as part of. This control word will only affect the paragraph.

TEX book: TEX resets.

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But you do have to use. It can be used to make. This causes. It is usually used with. Here is an example: TEX book: In other. For many types of. The space before a section heading, for example,. But what if you really want some blank space at the to p of a page? You could start the. We can note in passing that there is another more general method to put material at. For most material TEX does a good job of breaking up a paragraph in to lines. Usually you will not want a space between the text and the control word.

One of the most frustrating experiences for the new TEX user is the occurrence of. They are duly noted in the log file and are also written to the. Overfull boxes are also marked on the output by. It appears even though there is nothing wrong with. A good way to visualize the way TEX organizes a page is to think of the printed material. There are two types of boxes: hboxes and vboxes. Most of the time. In particular, it is the spacing of the words in a hbox corresponding to a line of.

Recall that TEX reads in the complete paragraph before deciding how to break it up. This is better than working a line at a time, since a slight improvement in one line. An underfull hbox means that there is to o much space. A line which is only slightly longer is set without being reported. The control word. The overfull. In addition, a. These are warnings that you ignore at your own peril! Adding new possibilities of hyphenation will sometimes eliminate an overfull box. For example, the au to matic. More generally, if.

The log file will show TEX book: Our discussion has involved the setting of type in to lines, that is, the horizontal page. There are several vertical analogues. Overfull and underfull hboxes indicate how. Similarly, overfull and underfull vboxes are reported. The concept of gathering text in to groups allows TEX input files to be greatly simplified. This is the easier way of having a few words in a different font. One use allows accents to be typeset with no accompanying.

Grouping can also be used to avoid spaces in the middle of a word when including. The effect can be dramatic; if you get. If there are. The text within the nested braces can also be indented since TEX ignores all. In fact, if your edi to r is smart enough, you can create the two lines. TEX is at its best when typesetting mathematics. The conventions for doing this are. If you plan to produce papers with. Mathematical text is inserted in to normal text in two possible ways: it can be in-line,.

It can also be displayed, that is, centred in a gap. Adding spaces to your input has no effect at all. What if you need a space or some. You can insert text by inserting it in to an hbox. TEX assumes that all the mathematical text being typeset is in one paragraph, and a. The exceptions,. The normal text control words.

Binary opera to rs combine two mathematical objects to get another object. Here is a list of some of the available binary opera to rs: TEX book: Ellipses are commonly used with binary opera to rs. Here are some relations: TEX book: Subscripts and superscripts are particularly easy to enter using TEX.

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The characters. To get several characters as a subscript or superscript, they. Notice that the superscripts and subscripts are au to matically typeset in a smaller. The situation is only slightly more complicated for a second layer of subscripts. They may be done to any. Notice that TEX takes care of the placement of.

TEX book: — If you want, you can let TEX choose the size of delimiter by using the control words. This is the usual mathematical convention to indicate that. Here is a table of these and some. It is used. The idea is TEX book: — In to the space. All of the mathematics covered so far has identical input whether it is to be typeset.

The first is that of aligning multiline displays. This is done with the alignment character. In each equation there should be. This is usually. For example TEX book: — Finally, suppose some text needs to appear in the middle of a displayed equation. For now we want to use them to temporarily resume using ordinary roman type.

Fortunately TEX. In fact there are two separate methods of aligning text. The first is. This is similar to setting the tab s to ps on a typewriter. Each line is handled individually, according to set tab columns, but with greater flexibility. Having done this, a line to use these tabs starts with the. The TEX book: Notice that it is possible to skip over some tab positions, and it is not necessary to. This is because TEX will tab to the next tab position even if unlike. In addition,.

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  4. Use this to centre the table given above. The size can. Note the extra space that results. It does have some drawbacks,. Both the template line and the display lines are divided in to sections by the alignment. The template line indicates that the first section of the typeset text will always be set two. The third and fourth sections are handled similarly. This continues until all the lines are accumulated, and. Sometimes horizontal and vertical lines are used to delimit entries in a table.

    To put. But still all is not. Suppose we take our last example and change the template to. In addition, the text has a little extra. A further TEX book: This would leave a gap between the vertical lines, so we use the. Finally we can get rid. Finally, we can see how to centre. In general, if we want to construct a table with boxed entries that is centred on the page,. TEX will put in a little extra space above and below the table as is appropriate for a display. For the first application. The simplest form for. So, for example, suppose you.

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    Any definition is,. I to ok my first course at the University of Mani to ba. Then I to ok my next course at. Finally I to ok my last course at the University of Mani to ba. The same holds for the line with the last closing brace. In this case a control sequence is. The material between the braces acts like a template. This is a safety feature,. It should be able to work with any. The form used to define a new.

    Here is an. John talks to Jane. Jane talks to John. John talks to me.