Handbook of Career Counseling for Women (Contemporary Topics in Vocational Psychology Series)
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Post World War II The career adjustments faced by the vast number of veterans, including those handicapped during the war, and the influx of new types of students to higher education as a result of the G. Bill of Rights were two of the social conditions identified by Schwebal as characteristic of the period following World War II. Adding to the diversity of students during the post war era were women and minorities enrolling in universities, which created different needs.
Women were seeking skills that would equip them to enter the job market, other minorities were seeking upward social mobility, and many white, middle class males were trying update their skills for re-entry into managerial or professional levels of work. The industrial-based economy shifted its focus to the manufacturing of consumer products creating an increased need for engineers, managers, educators and professionals. As a result, employment services witnessed largest expansion phase within its history Wrenn, By the 's term counseling psychology came into use with an emphasis on dealing with the person as an individual influenced by environmental factors.
John Holland, an Army classification interviewer, first proposed the concept of a person-environment fit and identified six types of people, environments, skills and values which today are called Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional, or RAISEC Figler and Bolles, This theory of personality and environment types provided the foundation for his Self Directed Search instrument as well as the Strong Interest Inventory common on many college campuses today.
Guidance and counseling in higher education increasingly developed as functions peripheral and supplemental to a more highly valued academic process Moore, Consumer demands and new technologies created a tremendous need for new employees. As a result, employers had established college-recruiting programs by the early 's Kroll and Rentz, By , at least four student personnel service professionals were represented on every major campus Moore, The 's - 's Once established on college campuses, career planning and placement were historically viewed as separate entities, either supervised by different student affairs administrators or located in separate offices.
The counseling center was responsible for career planning activities, while the placement office was responsible for the development of skills associated with the job-search process. However, by the late 's institutions began to implement an organizational model within student affairs that integrated career planning and placement resources. Also during this era, student activism, the Civil Rights Movement and Vietnam War had profound affects on students and administrators.
There was a new focus on actualizing one's potential that affected attitudes towards education and the role of work. Education and work were viewed as a way of facilitating self-expression and self-fulfillment. Counselors strived to assist in attaining employment that would be an expression of personality and facilitate self-actualization.
Career planning emerged as a major developmental process that could guide each person through the stages of education to securing employment. Student services of the 's became defined less by office and more by function Moore, As the field continued to evolve, services became more process-oriented. However, this sophistication of function seemed to be at odds with economic conditions. There was a decreased need for on-going campus recruiting because of reduced popularity. Funding of placement activities decreased and economic recession reduced overall operational budgets despite the need for improved services.
Figler and Bolles estimated that only one job offer was presented and accepted for every resumes sent out by job hunters. Several global and national trends began affecting career development in the US during the 's including workplace restructuring, shifting demographics, rapid technological advancement, an increase in dual-career couples and an increasingly global economy.
Definitions of career and career success as well as requirements of those who wanted to remain viable and productive in 21st century changed. There existed a wave of careerism that swept through higher education whereby students shifted from learning for learning's sake to equating a diploma to a ticket to the good life Knoll and Rentz, Generation X: The New Outsiders Unlike the baby boomers, who, for the most part, now design and provide most of career services, students of the 's have unique characteristics specific to their generation Cannon, They do not bear an overwhelming resemblance to the generational student stereotypes of either the process-oriented seventies or the fast track, career obsessed eighties.
Cannon pinpoints eight characteristics that are "truly representative of'X' factors: 1 need for variety and talks that are real rather than pretend; 2 demand for personal attention; 3 preference for accurate, factual information, promptly delivered; 4 attraction to technology as both source of expertise and means of improving expertise through technological mastery; 5 belief in traditional family goals - once career issues are settled; 6 desire for unique and interesting employment; 7.
Today's college students are described as being more alike than different, and that once clearly defined boundaries of college men and women, outsiders and rebels are starting to blur Horowitz, She further concludes that the sudden and sobering realization of the impact of college on jobs and incomes of contemporary students has long been understood by outsiders Horowitz, Today's outsiders are defined as a wide variety of students including part-time commuters, minorities seeking social mobility, or re-entry women seeking credentials.
The underprivileged seeking entrance in elite institutions constitutes an even newer, emergent group. In addition to the changing needs of the students, the importance of career networking has also emerged as the new fundamental reason for existence of career services Castella, Account Options Connexion.
Leong , Frederick Leong. Routledge , 5 mars - pages. This volume presents the single most comprehensive source of knowledge on the career development of racial and ethnic minorities.
CRC Press Online - Series: Contemporary Topics in Vocational Psychology Series
In so doing, it serves as a resource to graduate students learning about career development and career counseling, counselors and psychologists providing career counseling to racial and ethnic minorities, and psychologists and counselors doing research on the career development of these diverse groups. In recognition of the value of both culture-specific and culture-general information about the vocational psychology of racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, the book has a dual focus.
co.organiccrap.com/150471.php The first eight chapters are devoted to culture-specific information about career development and vocational behavior. The final two chapters synthesize and integrate the materials presented in the eight culture-specific chapters. The text has been divided into three sections.